Carroll, Meredith

Associate Professor of Aviation Human Factors
Aeronautics, College of

Personal Overview

Dr. Meredith Carroll is an Associate Professor of Aviation Human Factors at Florida Institute of Technology’s College of Aeronautics. She has over 10 years of experience conducting research and development related to human performance and cognition in the areas of training in complex systems, individual/team performance assessment and performance optimization for cognitive skills such as visual search and decision making. She has been funded by the Office of Naval Research (ONR), the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), the Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to study different facets of these areas. She also worked at the Kennedy Space Center conducting user-centered design of International Space Station payloads, processing facilities and ground support equipment. She teaches a range of human factors courses aimed at giving students practical, hands-on experience in applying theories of cognition and learning to optimize performance in a range of situations from aviation to defense.

Recently, her research has focused on utilizing physiological sensor technology (e.g., eye tracking, cardiovascular/electrodermal activity sensors) to gain access to previously unobservable aspects of performance in order to optimize learning and cognition. She was funded by ONR to study the impact of stress on decision making, including developing predictive models of an individual's resilience to stress, measures that can quantify stress in real time, and adaptive training approaches to improve decision making under stress. She is currently funded by the FAA to study pilot decision making on the flight deck, including how to effectivley integrate information on the flight deck from multiple sources and how to support pilots in making effective decisions when faced with information with varying levels of integrity, reliability and security.  She is also currently funded by AFRL to examine learner engagement associated with Umanned Aerial System (UAS) training, including the identification of physiological measures to quantify real-time learner engagement and interventions to increase learner engagement during training.

Educational Background

Ph.D. Applied Experimental/Human Factors Psychology, University of Central Florida, 2010
M.S. Aviation Science, Florida Institute of Technology, 2003
B.S. Aerospace Engineering, University of Virginia, 2001

Current Courses

Introduction to Human Factors
Human Factors in Man Machine Systems
Human Computer Interaction

Professional Experience

Senior Research Associate, Design Interactive, Inc. Orlando, FL (2005-2015): Served as Principal Investigator for the following research and development efforts:

  • Studied tactical decision making under stress and individual resilience to stress; developed models, measures and training techniques for improving resilience of decision making skills under stress (ONR Funded)
  • Developed and conducted empirical evaluation of a performance assessment and debrief system that integrated eye tracking technology to assess pilot scan strategies and cognitive state for Next Gen tactical aviation training (AFRL funded)
  • Evaluated low cost physiological sensors for integration into training tools to assess cognitive and affective states (ARL Funded)
  • Developed and evaluated tools for measuring training effectiveness and Return on Training Investment (ONR, AFRL Funded)
  • Developed trainee modeling techniques utilizing affective sate, cognitive states and behavioral performance (ONR Funded)
  • Designed and empirical evaluatedf eye tracking measures and virtual training tools to assess and remediate perceptual skills including visual search, detection and recognition (ONR Funded)

Adjunct Professor, FIT, College of Aeronautics (2012-2014)
Courses: Human Computer Interaction

Human Factors Design Specialist, The Boeing Company, Kennedy Space Center, FL (2003- 2005)

  • Performed human factors analysis and design of International Space Station (ISS) payloads, support equipment, facilities and work tasks
  • Conducted incident investigation and root causes analysis of incidents related to ISS flight hardware, support equipment, facilities
  • Performed human factors requirements verification of ISS payloads
  • Conducted usability testing in support of NASA's Human Factors Integrated Toolkit

Additional Duties

Member, Florida Institute of Technology Research Council
Member, College of Aeronautics Undergraduate Curriculum Committee

Current Research

Dr. Carroll is currently funded by the FAA to examine Human Factors considerations associated with integrating information from multiple sources on the flight deck. As new technology becomes available on the flight deck, pilots have the opportunity to access, and make decisions based on, greater amounts of data from a range of different sources. Through theoretical and empirical study, this effort is examining what information is being utilized on the flight deck, how this information is being integrated, and the implications for pilot decision making. The project includes review of the relevant literature and safety/accident reports, survey and interview of pilots across general aviation and air transport domains, and conduct of a simulation study.

Dr. Carroll is also currently funded by AFRL to identify and empirically evaluate measures and interventions to increase learner engagement during UAS training. This research is examining the relevant literature to develop a theoretical model of influencing factors across classroom, simulation and live training environments, identifying physiological measures which can quantify learner engagement in real time, as well as identifying interventions which can increase engagement during training. The model, measures and interventions will be empirically evaluated in a UAS training testbed.

Selected Publications

Carroll, M. and Winslow, B. (2017) Examination of the Impact of Condensed Biofeedback Training on Acute Stress Responses. Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science, 7, 287-303.

Champney, R. K., Stanney, K. M., Milham, L., and Carroll, M.B. (2017) An examination of virtual environment training fidelity on training effectiveness, Int. J. Learning Technology, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp.42–65.

Lindsey, S., Carstens, D.S. & Carroll, M. (2017). Presence Level of Low Cost Controllers for Mobile Based Virtual Reality Headsets, The Journal of Management & Engineering Integration, 10(1), 59-63.

Padron, C., Champney, R., and Carroll, M. (2016). Quantifying return on simulation-based training investment Proceedings of the Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC) Annual Meeting. Orlando, FL.

Carroll, M., Padron, C., Quinn, S., Surpris, G., Winslow, B., and Viklund, E. (2015). Effectiveness of process level feedback at training tactical decision making. Proceedings of the Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC) Annual Meeting. Orlando, FL.

Carroll, M., Surpris, G., Sidor, G., and Bennett, Winston. (2015). Evaluation of an eye tracking-based assessment and debrief tool for training next generation multirole tactical aviation skills. Proceedings of the 18th International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, Dayton, OH.

Winslow, B. D., Carroll, M.B., Martin, J.W., Surpris, G. & Chadderdon, G.L. (2015). Identification of resilient individuals and those at risk for performance deficits under stress. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 9(328), pp. 1-10.

Carroll, M., Winslow, B., Padron, C., Surpris, G., Murphy, J., Wong, J. and Squire, P. (2014). Inducing stress in warfighters during simulation-based training. Proceedings of the Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC) Annual Meeting. Orlando, FL.

Champney, R.K., Carroll, M., Surpris, G. (2014). A Human Experience Approach to Optimizing Simulator Fidelity. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 58th Annual Meeting. Chicago, Illinois, October 27-31.

Carroll, M. B., Padron, C. K., DeVore, L. A., Winslow, B., Hannigan, F. P., Murphy, J. S., and Squire, P. (2013). Simulation Training Approach for Small Unit Decision-making Under Stress. Proceedings of the Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC) Annual Meeting. Orlando, FL.

Carroll, M., Kokini, C. and Moss, J. (2013) ‘Training effectiveness of eye tracking-based feedback at improving visual search skills, Int. J. Learning Technology, Vol. 8, No. 2, pp.147–168.

Winslow, B., Carroll, M., Jones, D., Hannigan, F., Hale, K., Stanney, K., & Squire, P. (2013) Quantifying resilience to enhance individualized training. Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction. July 20-26, Las Vegas, NV.

Carroll, M., Strally, S., Surpris, G., Archer, M., & Bennett, W. (2013). Enhancing HMD-based Joint Strike Fighter Training through integration of Eye tracking and EEG Technology. Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction. July 20-26, Las Vegas, NV.

Stanney, K., Kokini, C., Ramirez-Padron, R., Carroll, M., Fuchs, S., Jones, D., & Hale, K. (2012). Development and Validation of a Real-Time Approach for Modeling Cognitive Readiness. Presented at the International Summit on Human Simulation (ISHS) 2012, St. Pete Beach, FL (May 23-25).

Carroll, M., Hale, K., Stanney, K., Woodman, M., DeVore, L., Squire, P. & Sciarini, L. (2012). Framework for training adaptable and stress-resilient decision making. Proceedings of the Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC) Annual Meeting. Orlando, FL.

Kokini, C., Carroll, M., Ramierez-Pardon, R., Wang, X., Hale, K., Sottilare, R. & Goldberg, B. (2012). Quantification of trainee affective and cognitive state in real-time. Proceedings of the Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC) Annual Meeting. Orlando, FL.

Carroll, M., Stanney, K., Kokini, C., & Hale, K. (2012). Given the state, what’s the metric? Proceedings of the 4th Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE) International Conference 2012. July 21-25, San Francisco, CA.

Carroll, M., Kokini, C., Champney, R., Fuchs, S., Sottilare, R., & Goldberg, B. (2011). Modeling trainee affective and cognitive state using low cost sensors. Proceedings of the Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC) Annual Meeting. Orlando, FL.

Carroll, M., Fuchs, S., Hale, K., Dargue, B. & Buck, B. (2010). Advanced training evaluation system: Leveraging Neuro-physiological measurement to individualize training. Proceedings of the Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC) Annual Meeting. Orlando, FL.

Carroll, M., Milham, L.,& Champney, R. (2009). Military observation: Perceptual skills training strategies. Proceedings of the Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC) Annual Meeting. Orlando, FL.

Hale, K., Stanney, K., Milham, L., Carroll, M.B. & Jones, D. (2009). Multimodal sensory information requirements for enhancing situation awareness and training effectiveness. Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science (TIES): Special Issue: Optimizing Virtual Training Systems.

Champney, R.K., Carroll, M.B., Milham, L., & Hale, K. (2008). Sensory-perceptual objective task (SPOT) taxonomy: A task analysis tool. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Conference 52nd Annual, New Your, NY.

Carroll, M.B., Champney, R.K., Milham, L.M., Jones, D.L., Chang, D., & Martin, G. (2008). Development of an instructor aid to diagnose performance. Proceedings of the Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC) Annual Meeting. Orlando, FL.

Dean, S,. Milham, L., Carroll, M., Schaeffer, R., Alker, M., & Buscemi, T. (2008). Challenges of scenario design in a mixed-reality environment. Proceedings of the Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC) Annual Meeting. Orlando, FL.

Milham, L.M., Carroll, M.B., Jones, D.L., Dean, S.E., & Chang, D. (2008). Cue fidelity evaluation: A requirements-driven approach to training effectiveness evaluation. Proceedings of the Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC) Annual Meeting. Orlando, FL.

Deaton, J. E., Bell, B., Fowlkes, J., Bowers, C., Jentsch, F., Bell, M. A. (2007). Enhancing team training and performance With automated performance assessment tools. International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 17 (4), 317-331.

Schaffer, R., Cohn, J., Hoover, A., Fouad, H., Martin, G., Milham, L., & Carroll, M. (2006). A system for Evaluating Training Transfer between Virtual and Live Urban Environments. Proceedings of the Huntsville Simulation Conference, October 2006, The Society for Modeling and Simulation International.

Champney, R., Milham, L., Carroll, M.B., Stanney, K.M., Cohn, J. (2006). A method to determine optimal simulator training time: Examining performance improvement across the learning curve. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Conference (50th Annual), San Francisco, CA.

Bell, M., Facci, E., Nayeem, R.V. (2005). Cognitive Tunneling, Aircraft-Pilot Coupling Design Issues and Scenario Interpretation Under Stress in Recent Airline Accidents. International Symposium of Aviation Psychology (13th Annual), Oklahoma City, OK.

Facci, E., Bell, M., Nayeem, R.V. (2005). Evaluating the Accident Rate: Cultural and Organizational Factors as Major Challenges in the Improvement of Aviation Safety –Analysis of Related Accidents. International Symposium of Aviation Psychology (13th Annual), Oklahoma City, OK.

Facci, E., Bell, M., Nayeem, R.V, & Gilson, R. (2005). Investigating the Effects of Social Proof in Aircraft Accidents. International Symposium of Aviation Psychology (13th Annual), Oklahoma City, OK.

Facci, E., Bell, M., & Nayeem, R.V. (2005). The Effect of Social Proof on Weather-Related Decision-Making in Aviation. Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Conference (49th Annual), Orlando, FL.