Carroll, Meredith

Associate Professor of Aviation Human Factors
Aeronautics, College of

Personal Overview

Dr. Meredith Carroll is an Associate Professor of Aviation Human Factors at Florida Institute of Technology’s College of Aeronautics. She has over 10 years of experience conducting research and development related to human performance and cognition in the areas of training in complex systems, individual/team performance assessment and performance optimization for cognitive skills such as visual search and decision making. She has been funded by the Office of Naval Research (ONR), the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), the Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to study different facets of these areas. She also worked at the Kennedy Space Center conducting user-centered design of International Space Station payloads, processing facilities and ground support equipment. She received her B.S. in Aerospace Engineering from the University of Virginia, her Masters in Aviation Science from Florida Institute of Technology and her Ph.D. in Applied Experimental Psychology and Human Factors from the University of Central Florida. She teaches a range of human factors courses aimed at giving students practical, hands-on experience in applying theories of cognition and learning to optimize performance in a range of situations from aviation to defense.

Recently, her research has focused on utilizing physiological sensor technology (e.g., eye tracking, cardiovascular/electrodermal activity sensors) to gain access to previously unobservable aspects of performance in order to optimize learning and cognition. She was funded by ONR to study the impact of stress on decision making, including developing predictive models of an individual's resilience to stress, measures that can quantify stress in real time, and adaptive training approaches to improve decision making under stress. She is currently funded by the FAA to study pilot decision making under uncertain conditions created by discrepant data in the cockpit, including identifying the most common and critical data discrepancies, how pilots respond to these discrepancies and how they can be mitigated to improve pilot decision making.

Educational Background

Ph.D. Applied Experimental/Human Factors Psychology, University of Central Florida, 2010
M.S. Aviation Science, Florida Institute of Technology, 2003
B.S. Aerospace Engineering, University of Virginia, 2001

Current Courses

Introduction to Human Factors
Human Factors in Man Machine Systems
Human Computer Interaction

Professional Experience

Senior Research Associate, Design Interactive, Inc. Orlando, FL (2005-2015): Served as Principal Investigator for the following research and development efforts:

  • Studied tactical decision making under stress and individual resilient to stress; developed models, measures and training techniques for improving resilience of decision making skills under stress (ONR Funded)
  • Developed and conducted empirical evaluation of a performance assessment and debrief system that integrated eye tracking technology to assess pilot scan strategies and cognitive state for Next Gen tactical aviation training (AFRL funded)
  • Evaluated low cost physiological sensors for integration into training tools to assess cognitive and affective states (ARL Funded)
  • Developed and evaluated tools for measuring training effectiveness and Return on Training Investment (ONR, AFRL Funded)
  • Develop trainee modeling techniques utilizing affective sate, cognitive states and behavioral performance (ONR Funded)

Adjunct Professor, FIT, College of Aeronautics (2012-2014)
Courses: Human Computer Interaction

Human Factors Design Specialist, The Boeing Company, Kennedy Space Center, FL (2003- 2005)

  • Performed human factors analysis and design of International Space Station (ISS) payloads, support equipment, facilities and work tasks
  • Conducted incident investigation and root causes analysis of incidents related to ISS flight hardware, support equipment, facilities
  • Performed human factor requirements verification of ISS payloads
  • Conducted usability testing in support of NASA's Human Factors Integrated Toolkit

Additional Duties

Member, Florida Institute of Technology Research Council
COA Undergraduate Curriculum Committee

Current Research

Dr. Carroll is currently funded by the FAA to examine data discrepancies in the cockpit and how pilots currently make decisions under uncertain conditions arising from such discrepancies.  As new technology becomes available in the cockpit, pilots have the opportunity to access data on uncertified devices such as the Electronic Flight Bag (EFB). This introduces a greater potential for pilots to encounter discrepant data in the cockpit (e.g., when two displays are presenting information that is incongruent), whether due to a system error, a malicious attack or a user error. Through theoretical and empirical study, this effort will identify potential and common data discrepancies that pilots encounter, how pilots currently respond when faced with discrepant data and how the FAA can mitigate these issues.

Selected Publications

Carroll, M. and Winslow, B. (2017) Examination of the Impact of Condensed Biofeedback Training on Acute Stress Responses. Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science, 7, 287-303.

Champney, R. K., Stanney, K. M., Milham, L., and Carroll, M.B. (2017) An examination of virtual environment training fidelity on training effectiveness, Int. J. Learning Technology, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp.42–65.

Carroll, M., Padron, C., Quinn, S., Surpris, G., Winslow, B., and Viklund, E. (2015). Effectiveness of process level feedback at training tactical decision making. Proceedings of the Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC) Annual Meeting. Orlando, FL.

Carroll, M., Surpris, G., Sidor, G., and Bennett, Winston. (2015). Evaluation of an eye tracking-based assessment and debrief tool for training next generation multirole tactical aviation skills. Proceedings of the 18th International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, Dayton, OH.

Winslow, B. D., Carroll, M.B., Martin, J.W., Surpris, G. & Chadderdon, G.L. (2015). Identification of resilient individuals and those at risk for performance deficits under stress. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 9(328), pp. 1-10.

Stanney, K.M., Hale, K.S., Carroll, M. & Champney, R. (2015). Applied perception and virtual environment training systems. In J.L. Szalma, M. Scerbo, R. Parasuraman, P.A. Hancock, & R.R. Hoffman (Eds.), The Handbook of Applied Perception Research. Cambridge University Press.

Carroll, M., Winslow, B., Padron, C., Surpris, G., Murphy, J., Wong, J. and Squire, P. (2014). Inducing stress in warfighters during simulation-based training. Proceedings of the Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC) Annual Meeting. Orlando, FL.

Carroll, M., Johnston, M., and Hale, K. (2014). Visual perceptual skills training in virtual environments. In K.S. Hale & K. Stanney (Eds). Handbook of Virtual Environments: Designs, Implementations and Applications, 2nd Edition. Lawrence, Erlbaum Associates, Inc.: NY, NY.

Champney, R.K., Carroll, M., Surpris, G. (2014). A Human Experience Approach to Optimizing Simulator Fidelity. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 58th Annual Meeting. Chicago, Illinois, October 27-31.

Carroll, M. B., Padron, C. K., DeVore, L. A., Winslow, B., Hannigan, F. P., Murphy, J. S., and Squire, P. (2013). Simulation Training Approach for Small Unit Decision-making Under Stress. Proceedings of the Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC) Annual Meeting. Orlando, FL.

Carroll, M., Kokini, C. and Moss, J. (2013) ‘Training effectiveness of eye tracking-based feedback at improving visual search skills, Int. J. Learning Technology, Vol. 8, No. 2, pp.147–168.

Winslow, B., Carroll, M., Jones, D., Hannigan, F., Hale, K., Stanney, K., & Squire, P. (2013) Quantifying resilience to enhance individualized training. Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction. July 20-26, Las Vegas, NV.

Carroll, M., Strally, S., Surpris, G., Archer, M., & Bennett, W. (2013). Enhancing HMD-based Joint Strike Fighter Training through integration of Eye tracking and EEG Technology. Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction. July 20-26, Las Vegas, NV.

Stanney, K., Carroll, M., Champney, R., DeVore, L., & Hale, K. (2013). Virtual environment training design: Pros, cons and tailored solutions. In C. Best, G. Galanis, J. Kerry, & R. Sottilare (Eds.), Fundamental Issues in Defense Training and Simulation. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate.

Stanney, K., Kokini, C., Ramirez-Padron, R., Carroll, M., Fuchs, S., Jones, D., & Hale, K. (2012). Development and Validation of a Real-Time Approach for Modeling Cognitive Readiness. Presented at the International Summit on Human Simulation (ISHS) 2012, St. Pete Beach, FL (May 23-25).

Carroll, M., Hale, K., Stanney, K., Woodman, M., DeVore, L., Squire, P. & Sciarini, L. (2012). Framework for training adaptable and stress-resilient decision making. Proceedings of the Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC) Annual Meeting. Orlando, FL.

Kokini, C., Carroll, M., Ramierez-Pardon, R., Wang, X., Hale, K., Sottilare, R. & Goldberg, B. (2012). Quantification of trainee affective and cognitive state in real-time. Proceedings of the Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC) Annual Meeting. Orlando, FL.

Carroll, M., Stanney, K., Kokini, C., & Hale, K. (2012). Given the state, what’s the metric? Proceedings of the 4th Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE) International Conference 2012. July 21-25, San Francisco, CA.

Carroll, M., Kokini, C., Champney, R., Fuchs, S., Sottilare, R., & Goldberg, B. (2011). Modeling trainee affective and cognitive state using low cost sensors. Proceedings of the Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC) Annual Meeting. Orlando, FL.

Fuchs, S., Carpenter, A., Carroll, M. & Hale, K. (2011). A hierarchical adaptation framework for adaptive training systems. In D.D. Schmorrow & C.M. Fidopiastis (Eds). Foundations of Augmented Cognition: Directing the Future of Adaptive Systems. LNAI 6780. Pp. 413-421. Springer: New York.

Carroll, M., Fuchs, S., Hale, K., Dargue, B. & Buck, B. (2010). Advanced training evaluation system: Leveraging Neuro-physiological measurement to individualize training. Proceedings of the Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC) Annual Meeting. Orlando, FL.

Carroll, M., Milham, L.,& Champney, R. (2009). Military observation: Perceptual skills training strategies. Proceedings of the Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC) Annual Meeting. Orlando, FL.

Hale, K., Stanney, K., Milham, L., Carroll, M.B. & Jones, D. (2009). Multimodal sensory information requirements for enhancing situation awareness and training effectiveness. Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science (TIES): Special Issue: Optimizing Virtual Training Systems.

Champney, R.K., Carroll, M.B., Milham, L., & Hale, K. (2008). Sensory-perceptual objective task (SPOT) taxonomy: A task analysis tool. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Conference 52nd Annual, New Your, NY.

Carroll, M.B., Champney, R.K., Milham, L.M., Jones, D.L., Chang, D., & Martin, G. (2008). Development of an instructor aid to diagnose performance. Proceedings of the Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC) Annual Meeting. Orlando, FL.

Dean, S,. Milham, L., Carroll, M., Schaeffer, R., Alker, M., & Buscemi, T. (2008). Challenges of scenario design in a mixed-reality environment. Proceedings of the Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC) Annual Meeting. Orlando, FL.

Milham, L.M., Carroll, M.B., Jones, D.L., Dean, S.E., & Chang, D. (2008). Cue fidelity evaluation: A requirements-driven approach to training effectiveness evaluation. Proceedings of the Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC) Annual Meeting. Orlando, FL.

Champney, R., Milham, L. M., Carroll, M.B., Ahmad, A., Stanney, K.M., Cohn, J., and Muth, E. (2008). Conducting training transfer studies in complex operational environments. In D. Schmorrow, J. Cohn, & D. Nicholson (Eds.), The Handbook of Virtual Environment Training: Understanding, Predicting and Implementing Effective Training Solutions for Accelerated and Experiential Learning. Aldershot, Hampshire, UK: Ashgate Publishing.

Milham, L. M., Carroll, M. B., Stanney, K.M., & Becker, W. (2008). Training Requirements Analysis. In D. Schmorrow, J. Cohn, & D. Nicholson (Eds.), The Handbook of Virtual Environment Training: Understanding, Predicting and Implementing Effective Training Solutions for Accelerated and Experiential Learning. Aldershot, Hampshire, UK: Ashgate Publishing.

Thompson, T., Carroll, M.B., and Deaton, J.E. (2008). Justification for use of simulation. In D. Vincenzi, M. Mouloua, and J. Wise (Eds.), Human Factors in Simulation and Training. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Cohn, J.V., Stanney, K.M., Milham, L.M., Carroll, M.B., Jones, D.L., Sullivan, J.A., & Darken, R.P., (2008). Training effectiveness evaluation: From theory to practice. In D. Schmorrow, J. Cohn, & D. Nicholson (Eds.), The Handbook of Virtual Environment Training: Understanding, Predicting and Implementing Effective Training Solutions for Accelerated and Experiential Learning. Aldershot, Hampshire, UK: Ashgate Publishing.

Becker, W.J., Burke, C.S., Sciarini, L.W., Milham, L., Carroll, M.B., Schaffer, R., & Wilbert, D. (2008). Training effectiveness experimentation with the USMC Deployable Virtual Training Environment - Combined Arms Network. In D. Schmorrow, J. Cohn, & D. Nicholson (Eds.), The Handbook of Virtual Environment Training: Understanding, Predicting and Implementing Effective Training Solutions for Accelerated and Experiential Learning (Vol 3, Sec 2, pp.308-323). Aldershot, Hampshire, UK: Ashgate Publishing.

Deaton, J. E., Bell, B., Fowlkes, J., Bowers, C., Jentsch, F., Bell, M. A. (2007). Enhancing team training and performance With automated performance assessment tools. International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 17 (4), 317-331.

Schaffer, R., Cohn, J., Hoover, A., Fouad, H., Martin, G., Milham, L., & Carroll, M. (2006). A system for Evaluating Training Transfer between Virtual and Live Urban Environments. Proceedings of the Huntsville Simulation Conference, October 2006, The Society for Modeling and Simulation International.

Champney, R., Milham, L., Carroll, M.B., Stanney, K.M., Cohn, J. (2006). A method to determine optimal simulator training time: Examining performance improvement across the learning curve. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Conference (50th Annual), San Francisco, CA.

Bell, M., Facci, E., Nayeem, R.V. (2005). Cognitive Tunneling, Aircraft-Pilot Coupling Design Issues and Scenario Interpretation Under Stress in Recent Airline Accidents. International Symposium of Aviation Psychology (13th Annual), Oklahoma City, OK.

Facci, E., Bell, M., Nayeem, R.V. (2005). Evaluating the Accident Rate: Cultural and Organizational Factors as Major Challenges in the Improvement of Aviation Safety –Analysis of Related Accidents. International Symposium of Aviation Psychology (13th Annual), Oklahoma City, OK.

Facci, E., Bell, M., Nayeem, R.V, & Gilson, R. (2005). Investigating the Effects of Social Proof in Aircraft Accidents. International Symposium of Aviation Psychology (13th Annual), Oklahoma City, OK.

Facci, E., Bell, M., & Nayeem, R.V. (2005). The Effect of Social Proof on Weather-Related Decision-Making in Aviation. Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Conference (49th Annual), Orlando, FL.